Glossary

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A

Accordion fold: Bindery term, two or more parallel folds which open like an accordion.
Against the grain: At right angles to direction of paper grain.
Alteration: Change in copy of specifications after production has begun.
Aqueous Coating: A water based coating applied after printing, either while the paper is still on press "in-line" or after it's off press, giving the paper a gloss, dull, or matte finish, and helping to prevent the underlying ink from rubbing off.
Artboard: Alternate term for mechanical art.
Author's corrections: Also know as "AC's". Changed and additions in copy after it has been typeset. Actual Weight: The true weight of any volume of paper used to determine both purchase price and shipping costs.

B

Back up: Printing the second side of a sheet already printed on one side.
Banding: Method of packaging printed pieces of paper using rubber or paper bands.
Basic Size: The customary sheet size used to establish the bases weight of a ream (500 sheets) of a given grade of paper. Standard basic sizes vary by paper grade. ie: The basic size of book paper is 25" x 38", while the basic size of cover stock is 20" x 26".
Basis Weight: Weight in pounds of a ream of paper cut to the basic size for its grade.
Bind: To fasten sheets or signatures with wire, thread, glue. or by other means.
Bindery: The finishing department of a print shop or firm specializing in finishing printed products.
Blanket: The thick rubber mat on a printing press that transfers ink from the plate to paper.
Bleed: Printing that goes to the edge of the sheet after trimming.
Blind embossing: An image pressed into a sheet without ink or foil.
Blueline: A blue photographic proof used to check position of all image elements.
Board: Alternate term for mechanical.
Bond & carbon: Business form with paper and carbon paper.
Bond paper: Strong durable paper grade used for letterheads and business forms.
Break for color: Also known as a color break. To separate mechanically or by software the parts to be printed in different colors.
Brightness: The brilliance or reflectance of paper.
Bulk: Thickness of paper stock in thousandths of an inch or number of pages per inch.
Bulk pack: Boxing printed product without wrapping or banding.
Burn: Exposing a printing plate to high intensity light or placing an image on a printing plate by light.
Butt: Joining IMAGES_FOLDER without overlapping.
Butt fit: Printed colors that overlap one row of dots so they appear to butt.

C

C1S: Paper that is coated on one side only.
C2S: Paper that is coated on both sides.
Caliper: The thickness of a single sheet of paper, as measured with a sensitive tool called a micrometer, and expressed in units of thousandths of an inch.
Camera-ready copy: Print ready mechanical art.
Carbonless: Pressure sensitive writing paper that does not use carbon.
Carload: A truck load of paper weighing 40000 pounds.
Case bind: A type of binding used in making hard cover books using glue.
Cast coated: Coated paper with a high gloss reflective finish.
Chrome: A term for a transparency.
Coated paper: A clay coated printing paper with a smooth finish.
Collate: A finishing term for gathering paper in a precise order.
Color bar: A quality control term regarding the spots of ink color on the tail of a sheet.
Color correction: Methods of improving color separations.
Color filter: Filters uses in making color separations, red, blue, green.
Color key: Color proofs in layers of acetate:
Color matching system: A system of formulated ink colors used for communicating color.
Color separations: The process of preparing artwork, photographs, transparencies, or computer generated art for printing by separating into the four primary printing colors.
Comb bind: To plastic comb bind by inserting the comb into punched holes.
Composite film: Combining two or more IMAGES_FOLDER on one or more pieces of film.
Continuous-tone copy: Illustrations, photographs or computer files that contain gradient tones from black to white or light to dark.
Contrast: The tonal change in color from light to dark.
Copy: All furnished material or disc used in the production of a printed product.
Cover paper: A heavy printing paper used to cover books, make presentation folders, etc.
Crash number: Numbering paper by pressing an image on the first sheet which is transferred to all parts of the printed set.
Crimping: Puncture marks holding business forms together.
Cromalin: Trade name for DuPont color proofs.
Crop: To cut off parts of a picture or image.
Crop marks: Printed lines showing where to trim a printed sheet.
Crossover: Printing across the gutter or from one page to the facing page of a publication.
Cyan: One of four standard process colors. The blue color.Coated Paper: Paper with an outer layer of coating applied to one or both sides. Coated papers are available in a variety of finishes, like gloss, dull and matte. They tend to have good ink holdout and minimal dot gain, which can be especially important for recreating sharp, bright printed IMAGES_FOLDER, black and white halftones, and four color process IMAGES_FOLDER. The smooth surface of coated papers also helps to reflect light evenly.

D

Densitometer: A quality control devise to measure the density of printing ink.
Density: The degree of color or darkness of an image or photograph.
Diazo: A light sensitive coating used on printing plates.
Die: Metal rule or imaged block used to cut or place an image on paper in the finishing process.
Die cutting: Curing IMAGES_FOLDER in or out of paper.
Direct-to-Plate: The process for creating printing plates direct from digital page files bypassing the traditional film creation step. Direct-to-plate workflows promise to reduce cost and speed throughput by eliminating the need for expensive film.
Dot: An element of halftones. Using a loupe you will see that printed pictures are made many dots.
Dot Gain or Spread: The tendency for the dots of halftones and four-color IMAGES_FOLDER to print larger than they are on the film or plate. If the printer or color house does not compensate for this, IMAGES_FOLDER may be distorted, appearing darker or less vivid than intended.
Double burn: Exposing a plate to multiple IMAGES_FOLDER.
DPI: (dots per inch) The number of dots that fit horizontally and vertically into a one-inch measure. Generally, the more dots per inch, the more detail is captured, and the sharper the resulting image.
Draw-down: A sample of ink and paper used to evaluate ink colors.
Drop-out: Portions of artwork that do not print.
Dummy: An unprinted mock-up of a book or catalog. A dummy is made of the same paper stocks that will be used in the finished piece, and serves as a reference for the client, designer, printer, mailing house or distributor.
Duotone: A halftone picture made up of two printed colors.
Dylux: Photographic paper made by DuPont and used for bluelines.Dot Compensation: Adjusting the size of the dots in halftones or four-color IMAGES_FOLDER to allow for dot gain and to ensure that the color and detail of the image print as intended.

E

Emboss: Pressing an image into paper so that it will create a raised relief.
Emulsion: Light sensitive coating found on printing plates and film.
Eurobind: A patented method of binding perfect bound books so they will open and lay flatter.

F

Facsimile transmission: The process of converting graphic IMAGES_FOLDER into electronic signals.
Film: The traditional "middle-man" in the process of creating printing plates. Digital files or "stipped" manual pages would first be exposed onto film. The film would then be used to photomechanically create the printing plate.
Film rip: See Rip film.
Flat: An assembly of negatives taped to masking materials for platemaking.
Flood: To cover a printed page with ink, varnish, or plastic coating.
Flop: The reverse side of an image.
Foil: A metallic or pigmented coating on plastic sheets or rolls used in foil stamping and foil embossing.
Foil emboss: Foil stamping and embossing a image on paper with a die.
Foil stamping: Using a die to place a metallic or pigmented image on paper.
Form: The assembled pages and IMAGES_FOLDER as printed on a single or double web. With the correct imposition, the pages of a form will be in correct order after coming off the press. When completed on the press a form becomes a signature.
4-color-process: The process of combining four basic colors to create a printed color picture or colors composed from the basic four colors.
French fold: Two folds at right angles to each other.

G

Galley proof: Text copy before it is put into a mechanical layout or desktop layout.
Gang: Getting the most out of a printing press by using the maximum sheet size to print multiple IMAGES_FOLDER or jobs on the same sheet. A way to save money.
Generation: Stages of reproduction from original copy. A first generation reproduction yields the best quality.
Ghost bars: A quality control method used to reduce ghosted image created by heat or chemical contamination.
Ghosting: A faint printed image that appears on a printed sheet where it was not intended. More often than not this problem is a function of graphical design. It is hard to tell when or where ghosting will occur. Sometimes you can see the problem developing immediately after printing the sheet, other times the problem occurs while drying. However the problem occurs it is costly to fix, if it can be fixed. Occasionally it can be eliminated by changing the color sequence, the inks, the paper, changing to a press with a drier, printing the problem area in a separate pass through the press or changing the racking (reducing the number of sheets on the drying racks). Since it is a function of graphical design, the buyer pays for the increased cost.
Gloss: A shiny look reflecting light.
Grain: The direction in which the paper fiber lie.
Grippers: The metal fingers on a printing press that hold the paper as it passes through the press.

H

Hairline: A very thin line or gap about the width of a hair or 1/100 inch.
Halftone: Converting a continuous tone to dots for printing.
Hard copy: The output of a computer printer, or typed text sent for typesetting.
Hickey: An irregularity in the ink coverage of a printed page. Hickeys are caused by paper dust, dirt, or pick out on the printing blanket, all of which prevents the ink from adhering to the paper surface.

High-bulk paper: A paper made thicker than its standard basis weight.
Highlight: The lightest areas in a picture or halftone.

I

Image area: Portion of paper on which ink can appear.
Imposition: The process of arranging the film pages or digital file pages into the correct layout so that the form, when printed and folded on the press and gathered with other signatures in bindery produces a book or catalog with the pages in the correct final order. Imposition also takes into account page creep - the added width of a page needed to wrap around inner pages - by nudging the placement of the page in small increments. Page creep is generally an issue on catalogs of 64 pages or more.

Impression: Putting an image on paper.
Imprint: Adding copy to a previously printed page.
Indicia: Postal information place on a printed product.
Ink fountain: The reservoir on a printing press that hold the ink.

J

Jog: To shake a stack of papers or books, either on a machine or by hand, so that the edges line up.

K

Keylines: Lines on mechanical art that show position of photographs or illustrations.
Kiss die cut: To cut the top layer of a pressure sensitive sheet and not the backing.
Knock out: To mask out an image.

L

Laid finish: Simulating the surface of handmade paper.
Laminate: To cover with film, to bond or glue one surface to another.
Layflat: See Eurobind.
Line copy: High contrast copy not requiring a halftone.
Lines per inch: The number of rows of dots per inch in a halftone.
Loupe: A magnifying glass used to review a printed image, plate and position film.

M

Magenta: Process red, one of the basic colors in process color.
Makeready: All the activities required to prepare a press for printing.
Marginal words: Call outs for directions on various parts of a business form.
Mask: Blocking light from reaching parts of a printing plate.
Matchprint: Trade name for 3M integral color proof.
Matte finish: Dull paper or ink finish.
Mechanical: Camera ready art all contained on one board.
Mechanical separation: Mechanical art overlay for each color to be printed.
Micrometer: Instrument used to measure the thickness of different papers.
Middle tones: The tones in a photograph that are approximately half as dark as the shadow area.
Moire: A pattern created by printing several repetitive designs on top of each other. In four-color process printing, 4 screens of colored dots print on top of each other. If the angles of the halftone screens of each of the 4 colors are not properly aligned with each other, an undesirable, blurry pattern called "moire" appears in the final image.

N

Negative: The image on film that makes the white areas of originals black and black areas white.
Non-reproducing blue: A blue color the camera cannot see. Used in marking up artwork.

O

Offsetting: Using an intermediate surface used to transfer ink. Also, an unpleasant happening when the IMAGES_FOLDER of freshly printed sheets transfer IMAGES_FOLDER to each other.
Offset paper: Term for uncoated book paper.
Ok sheet: Final approved color inking sheet before production begins.
Opacity: A measure of how opaque a paper is. The more fibers a paper has, the more opaque it is, and the less it allows "show-through" of the printing on the back side or on the next page. Opacity isn't always determined by thickness or weight; a thinner paper may have more opacity than a thicker paper if opacifying thickeners are used.
Outline halftone: Removing the background of a picture or silhouetting an image in a picture.
Overlay: The transparent cover sheet on artwork often used for instructions.
Overrun or overs: Copies printed in excess of the specified quantity. (Printing trade terms allow for + - 10 % to represent a completed order.)

P

Page count: Total number of pages in a book including blanks.
Pattern carbon: Special carbon paper used in business forms that only transfers in certain areas.
Perfect Bind: A binding process using a glue to bind the pages of a catalog or book to a separate cover like a paperback book. This process also produces a visible flat spine. This bindery process is required for catalogs that exceed the capacity of saddle stitching.
Perfecting Press: A sheet fed printing press that prints both sides of a sheet in one pass.
Pica: Unit of measure in typesetting. One pica = 1/6 inch.
Picking: A problem generally resulting from using an ink that's too tacky for the paper it's printed on. The ink actually pulls tiny pieces of the paper off the surface of the sheet.
Pin register: A standard used to fit film to film and film to plates and plates to press to assure the proper registration of printer colors.
Plate: The printing plate, generally a thin sheet of metal that carries the printing image. The plate surface is treated or configured so only the printing image is ink receptive.
Plate gap: Gripper space. The area where the grippers hold the sheet as it passes through the press.
PMS: The abbreviated name of the Pantone Color Matching System.
PMT: Abbreviated name for photomechanical transfer. Often used to make position prints.
Process colors: Cyan (blue), magenta (process red), yellow (process yellow), black (process black).
Point: For paper, a unit of thickness equaling 1/1000 inch. for typesetting, a unit of height equaling 1/72 inch.
PostScript: The computer language most recognized by printing devices.
Press number: A method of numbering manufacturing business forms or tickets.
Pressure-sensitive paper: Paper material with self sticking adhesive covered by a backing sheet.
Process blue: The blue or cyan color in process printing.
Process Ink: The four process colors; cyan (process blue), magenta (process red), yellow, and black used to print four-color IMAGES_FOLDER. The colors are also referred to as CMYK respectively (K signifying black).

Q

R

Ragged left: Type that is justified to the right margin and the line lengths vary on the left.
Ragged right: Type that is justified to the left margin and the line lengths vary on the right.
Ream: Five hundred sheets of paper.
Recto: Right-hand page of an open book.
Reflective copy: Copy that is not transparent.
Register: To position print in the proper position in relation to the edge of the sheet and to other printing on the same sheet.
Register marks: Cross-hair lines or marks on film, plates, and paper that guide strippers, platemakers, pressmen, and bindery personnel in processing a print order from start to finish.
Registration: Putting two or more color plates together so that they are exactly aligned and the resulting image is sharp.Reverse: The opposite of what you see. Printing the background of an image. For example; type your name on a piece of paper. The reverse of this would be a black piece of paper with a white name.
Rip film: A method of making printing negatives from PostScript files created by desktop publishing.

S

Saddle Stitched: Binding folded sheets or signatures of paper are gathered together, one inside the other, placed over a "saddle", and stitched or stapled along the spine with wire. Saddle stitched books will lie flat when open, but may contain only a limited number of pages as determined by the thickness of the paper used.
Scanner: Device used to make color separations, halftones, duo tones and tri tones. Also a device used to scan art, pictures or drawings in desktop publishing.
Score: A crease put on paper to help it fold better.
Screen angles: Frequently a desktop publishers nightmare. The angles at which halftone, duo tones, tri tones, and color separation printing films are placed to make them look right.
Self-cover: Using the same paper as the text for the cover.
Shadow: The darkest areas of a photograph.
Show-through: Printing on one side of a sheet that can be seen on the other side of the sheet.
Side guide: The mechanical register unit on a printing press that positions a sheet from the side.
Side stitch: Binding by stapling along one side of a sheet.
Signature: A sheet of printed pages which when folded become a part of a book or publication.
Silhouette halftone: A term used for an outline halftone.
Skid: A pallet used for a pile of cut sheets.
Specifications: A precise description of a print order.
Spine: The binding edge of a book or publication.
Split fountain: Putting more than one ink in a printing fountain to achieve special color affects.
Spoilage: Planned paper waste for all printing operations.
Spot varnish: Varnish used to hilight a specific part of the printed sheet.
Stamping: Term for foil stamping.
Stat: Term for inexpensive print of line copy or halftone.
Step-and-repeat: A procedure for placing the same image on plates in multiple places.
Stet: A proof mark meaning let the original copy stand.
Stock: The material to be printed.
Stripping: The positioning of film on a flat prior to platemaking.
Substance weight: A term of basis weight when referring to bond papers.
Substrate: Any surface on which printing is done.

T

Text paper: Grades of uncoated paper with textured surfaces.
Tints: A shade of a single color or combined colors.
Tissue overlay: Usually a thin transparent paper placed over artwork for protection uses for marking color breaks and other printer instructions.
Transfer tape: A peel and stick tape used in business forms.
Transparency: A positive photographic slide on film allowing light to pass through.
Transparent copy: A film that light must pass through for it to be seen or reproduced.
Transparent ink: A printing ink that does not conceal the color under it.
Trapping: Printing ink over previously printed ink. Trapping is also used to describe the very slight overlapping of adjacent colors or IMAGES_FOLDER to prevent a gap in printing between two items that touch.
Trim marks: Similar to crop or register marks. These marks show where to trim the printed sheet.
Trim size: The final size of one printed image after the last trim is made.

U

Under-run: Production of fewer copies than ordered. See over run.
Up: Printing two or three up means printing multiple copies of the same image on the same sheet.
UV coating: Liquid laminate bonded and cured with ultraviolet light. Environmentally friendly.

V

Varnish: A coating printed on top of a printed sheet to protect it, and a finish, and/or add a tinge of color. An entire sheet may be varnished, or certain areas, like halftones, may be spot varnished to add emphasis and appeal.
Verso: The left hand page of an open book.
Vignette halftone: A halftone whose background gradually fades to white.

W

Washup: Removing printing ink from a press, washing the rollers and blanket. Certain ink colors require multiple washups to avoid ink and chemical contamination.
Waste: A term for planned spoilage.
Watermark: A distinctive design created in paper at the time of manufacture that can be easily seen by holding the paper up to a light.
Web: A roll of printing paper.
Web Paper: Paper that comes in a roll rather than in sheets. A web press prints this paper, folding and/or cutting it "in-line."
Web Press: A press specifically designed to print rolls of paper called webs. A web press runs much faster than a sheet-fed press: as many as 40,000 IMAGES_FOLDER per hour verses a maximum of about 14,000 per hour on a sheet-fed press.
Wire O: A bindery trade name for mechanical binding using double loops of wire through a hole.
Wire-O binding: A method of wire binding books along the binding edge that will allow the book to lay flat using double loops. See Wire O.
With the grain: Folding or feeding paper into the press or folder parallel to the grain of the paper.
Work and tumble: Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from the gripper to the tail to print the second side using the same side guide and plate for the second side.
Work and turn: Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from left to right ussing the same side guides and plate for the second side.
Wove paper: A paper having a uniform unlined surface with a smooth finish.

X

Y

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